Before Bigfoot, before UFOs, America was caught in the grips of a craze that originated in Tennessee: the legend of the Tennessee pygmies
In the early 1800s, a rash of news stories began appearing in Nashville and middle Tennessee newspapers regarding the discovery on middle Tennessee farms of pygmy graves. Through the process of plowing, or by fortune of erosion, farmers and landowners had discovered small graves — rustic rectangular stone boxes or sarcophagi, containing normal size adult skulls, but bones that seemed to indicate that the deceased were not of a normal stature. The boxes were small, approximately two feet long, 14 inches wide, and 16 inches deep.
Published accounts stirred 19th-century imaginations, and the stories spread to other publications around the US, creating the legend of the Tennessee pygmies. Cherokee folklore seemed to confirm the existence of pygmies, with their belief in a race of little people. Curious experts came to Nashville to investigate grave sites, examine bones, and offer explanations. Farmers began probing their properties with metal rods, stabbing the Earth in search of hard stone lids.
Keep in mind, in the 1820s and 30s, even a medical doctor’s understanding of anatomy was lacking compared to our modern knowledge. Some experts confidently declared that these were simply compact boxes containing bundles of normal-sized bones, or perhaps the bones of children, from ancient Native Americans. One expert noted that some western tribes of Native Americans place their deceased on scaffolds for something like a so-called “sky burial,” and may have later given the bones a “second burial” in the stone boxes below the soil. Others weren’t so sure, feeding the pygmy craze.
Of course, like stories of Bigfoot or UFOs, once popular legends take hold, they last a long time. The pygmy stories were still being investigated 50 years later, well after the Civil War.
Unique comb graves — a connection?
Now a curious side story.
In a dramatic and historic hilltop cemetery overlooking the town of Sparta, in White County, Tennessee, there’s a unique style of grave known as a comb grave, or a tent grave. These consist of two long stone slabs, propped into a pitched A-style “tent” over the grave, capped on the ends with triangular stones.
According to archaeologist Kevin E. Smith, this style of grave is unique to White County and a few surrounding counties on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee — coincidentally, the same region where the pygmy grave boxes were discovered. Smith speculates whether the appearance of comb graves in the early 1820s might somehow be connected to the integration of the stories of pygmy graves into Appalachian culture.
Thanks for reading!
Smith, Kevin E., Tennessee’s Ancient Pygmy Graveyards: The “Wonder of the Western Country,” 2013